Optional learning units

Semester 2
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Advances in Forwarding and Routing
Cooperative Networking
Information Theory: Principles and Applications
Mobile Communication Systems
Mobile Computing
Network Services and Applications
Optical Communications
Wireless Networks and Protocols

Advances in Forwarding and Routing

Lecturers: Rute Sofia (coordinator), Paulo Mendes, Maria João Nicolau

Overview: Within the context of packet-based networking, forwarding relies on the store-and-forward concept. Specifically, nodes keep forwarding state about the possible location (or direction) of destinations and compute paths based on such information. While still efficient, most of the metrics that are the basis to today's Internet routing were though having in mind static topologies, fix end-nodes, and providing support to the client-server service models. Those parameters were capable of providing robustness while keeping a much desired feature of IP: its connectionless facet. With the introduction of wireless technologies, the Internet is quickly changing to become multi-access, where a major share of the technologies applied is based upon radio. Fixed networks are today mostly terminated (first-mile) by some form of Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology. Realizing this, the wireless-related research community has done an effort to develop routing algorithms and protocols that are better suited to the wireless medium, than shortest-path based algorithms. Nonetheless, albeit relevant in closed, single-technology environments, these mechanisms still fall short in what concerns multi-access networks, of which an Internet of the future will rely upon. These aspects limit the potential of a mobile Internet, given that as data communications are now critical to social interaction and behavior, loss of connectivity becomes less tolerable.

Aims: This course is dedicated to emerging forwarding and routing methods in packet-switched networks. The course starts by addressing novel forwarding mechanisms suitable to the application of Ethernet into large-scale networks (such as its application to the access and aggregation regions of Metropolitan Area Networks, MANs). It then goes over routing approaches that are better suited to paradigm shifts in Internet's communication and business models, than plain hop-count approaches. A final topic to be covered is the recent Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), which is also a paradigm shift from the regular forwarding in packet-switched networks, given that data reception reliability can be achieved even in the presence of intermmitent connectivity.

1. Ethernet application to MANs: spanning-tree, limitations and advantages.
2. Going beyond spanning-tree approaches.
3. New ways to scale Ethernet forwarding.
4. Introduction to routing aspects in multi-access Internet architectures.
5. Routing algorithms for new Internet architectures.
6. QoS routing approaches.
7. Achieving reliability: novel routing approaches.
8. DTN architectures and routing characterization.
9. Suitable routing algorithms to DTNs.


Cooperative Networking

Lecturers: Paulo Mendes (coordinator), Rute Sofia, André Zúquete

Overview: Cooperative networking gives the means to develop adequate user-centric communication models, and to understand the benefits and implications they may bring to Internet stakeholders. Such benefit is a direct result from the underlying principle of this type of networks: Internet services are shared among end-users that may or may not directly relate in real environments and such sharing has the potential to strengthen social interaction in reality. However, cooperative networking requires functionality and support that current Internet models and architectures are not always suitable to serve. From a pure network perspective, new cooperation models start to emerge, in particular due to the sharing possibilities that wireless networks introduce. For instance, user-provided network models start to emerge, ranging from basic functionality, for instance, the ability to create an wireless (ad-hoc) network on the fly with a simple PC (e.g., Internet Connection Sharing functionality from Microsoft), to more elaborate cases of commercial success, e.g. FON. User-provided networks are expected to grow, despite the limitations imposed by traditional operator-centric Internet communication models: the control of what to transmit in the Internet is today mostly centralized in a few players, namely, access and network providers. The described expectation is corroborated by the growing popularity of Web2.0 and alike applications, where user-centric models substitute the regular provider-centric models.

Aims: The purpose of this course is to provide students with know-how in the recent topic of cooperative networking. Current and future cooperation models, their underlying requisites as well as potential solutions are to be explained and debated based upon recent research results. The course content ranges from requirements and application scenarios (as well as potential market application) to techniques that are relevant to consider in cooperative networking, as well as to the very relevant topic of security models adequate for these type of environments.

1. User-spreadable networking models.
2. Mobility as a cooperation technique.
3. Cooperative communication architectures and business potential.
4. Cooperative networking techniques.
5. Optimized user cooperation.
6. Real-world examples: cooperation models applied to wireless.
7. Risks raised by cooperative environments.
8. Incentives vs. rules to cooperate.
9. Punishment and rewarding.
10. Reputation systems.


Information Theory: Principles and Applications

Lecturers: Miguel Rodrigues (coordinator), João Barros, José Vieira

Aims: The objective of the course it to expose students to the fundamental elements and practices of information theory, covering both theoretical and applied topics of recognized importance in contemporary communications systems and networks. The first part of the course covers the basic principles of information theory, such as source and channel coding for single-user and multi-user communications systems. The second part of the course covers advanced applications of information theory, including the analysis, design and optimization of wireless communications systems and networks, sensor networks, and network information flow, as well as security and privacy. The course will also expose students to exciting cutting-edge research topics in information theory and its applications.

Part I: Principles

1. Information Measures: entropy; relative entropy; mutual information; Jensen's inequality; Fano's inequality; data processing inequality.
2. Source Coding: asymptotic equipartition property; source coding theorem - achievability and converse; source codes - Huffman coding, Shannon-Fano-Elias coding, arithmetic coding, Lempel-Ziv coding.
3. Channel Coding: joint asymptotic equipartition property; channel coding theorem - achievability and converse; channel codes - Hamming codes; joint source channel coding theorem; channel capacity with and without feedback.
4. Multiuser Information Theory: multiple-access channel; broadcast channel; relay channel; Slepian-Wolf coding; source coding with side information.

Part II: Applications

1. Wireless Systems and Networks: fading channels capacity - the ergodic, block, and quasi-static fading channels; space-time coding; space-time multiplexing; diversity-multiplexing tradeoff.
2. Sensor Networks: sensing capacity; compressed sensing; distributed source coding; distributed inference.
3. Network Information Flow: routing versus network coding; network code construction; randomized network coding; network coding protocols.
4. Security and Privacy: information-theoretic security; secret key agreement; coding for secrecy; secure multi-party computation.
5. Advanced Coding Applications: Coding in the real and complex number field; random codes; digital fountains; explicit and implicit graph (rateless) codes; LT and Raptor codes; joint source-channel coding; effcient and reliable downloads from multiple sources, distributed storage, multimedia broadcast.


Mobile Communication Systems

Lecturers: Atílio Gameiro (coordinator), António Navarro, Nuno Borges Carvalho

Aims: The objective of this course is to provide comprehensive and updated vision of the requirements and techniques used in the design of mobile and wireless communication links. It is expected that at the end of the course the students will be:
• able to identify and understand the main requirements, issues, limitations, parameters and components used in the design of point to point and multi-user radio links,
• using such a knowledge understand the rationale for the solutions adopted in existing or emerging systems and be able to participate in the development and proposal of new ones to answer the goals foreseen for future systems.

1. Introduction
2. Wireless networks
3. Wireless Channels
4. Link design and performance evaluation
5. Impairments and link degradation factors
6. Diversity
7. Spread Spectrum AN
8. Multicarrier systems
9. Multiple antenna systems


Mobile Computing

Lecturers: Helena Rodrigues (coordinator), Adriano Moreira, Rui Aguiar

Overview: Mobile Computing has been emerging as a new paradigm for computing systems, and essentially corresponds to a vision where computation is available everywhere, where everything communicates with everything else, and where virtual and physical environments become closely interconnected. With computing devices becoming progressively smaller and more powerful, it is reasonable to expect that almost any device, from clothing to coffee mugs, will be embedded with some sort of computational capability and able to connect with a large number of other networked devices. This will dramatically change our perception of what a computer system is, as the entire environment, with all its integrated devices and associated services, becomes indistinguishable from the computer. In such scenario, the environment becomes the interface and computation devices, as we currently know them, fade into the background. Pervasive computing systems are thus radically different from traditional distributed systems, and set many new research challenges that cut across various disciplines.

Aims: This course aims to introduce students to the current challenges and opportunities in Mobile Computing, to create some insight regarding the way that mobile computing is evolving towards a world of pervasive computing and networking. The focus of the course is on the challenges and reference approaches for enabling software infrastructures to become integrated into their physical and social environments. Reference case studies will be used to guide the study of the most commonly used approaches and issues. This course will also make the bridge between mobile and pervasive computing, exploring common objectives, design principles, and research challenges, but highlighting the way in which mobile computing can be seen as a step towards a new computing paradigm. It will also explore some recent results on usability studies and new types of applications and activities in the context of users’ continual and instantly accessible presence in mobile, ubiquitous and context-aware systems.

1. Foundations of Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing
2. Mobile devices and platforms
3. Location techniques and space modelling
4. Software architectures for mobile and ubiquitous computing
5. Situated Computing
6. Real world deployment


Network Services and Applications

Lecturers: Paulo Carvalho (Coordinator), Susana Sargento, Ricardo Morla

Aims: The objective of the course is to provide an extensive study of the challenges and solutions to support today's network services and applications with emphasis on the Internet protocol stack. The range of topics under study includes recent developments both at network, transport and applications level of the TCP/IP protocol stack, giving students the chance to ground their theoretical and experimental knowledge in that field.

1. Introduction
2. Internetworking
3. Mobile IP
4. Service integration and QoS
5. Applications and Services
6. Overlay networks
7. Future research directions


Optical Communications

Lecturers: Henrique Salgado (coordinator), António Teixeira, Mário Lima

Aims: The course aims to provide the students with the fundamentals of present optical communication systems as well an understanding of more advanced topics in fiber optic transmission. It discusses several issues covering in a first part the principles of optoelectronics and fiber optics operation, followed by a presentation of a number of selected topics of recognized importance in optical communications.

1. Optical fibers: single and multimode, attenuation, modal dispersion, group-velocity dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion.
2. Sources: light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, modulation, chirp, linewidth, relativity intensity noise.
3. Photodiodes and receivers: pin, avalanche, responsitivity, transit time, receiver performance.
4. Single channel systems simulation and analysis.
5. Optical amplifiers: gain, saturation, noise; Erbium doped and semicondutor amplifiers; pre-amplified receiver performance; Raman amplifiers.
6. WDM Systems: multiplexing components; filters, gratings and multiplexers; system architectures; WDM systems crosstalk.
7. Nonlinear effects in fibers: Raman, Brillouin and Kerr (SPM, XPM, FWM).
8. Multi-channel systems simulation and analysis.
9. Selected topics


Wireless Networks and Protocols

Lecturers: Adriano Moreira (coordinator), Rui Aguiar, Manuel Ricardo

Aims: Wireless Networks and Protocols (WNP) is a course for students aimed at specializing in the mobile communications theme of MAP-Tele. The WNP course has two main objectives:
1. to provide the students with the competences required to understand current wireless networks and their main functions;
2. to provide students with the competences required to create future wireless networks and/or its associated functions.
In order to meet these objectives a set of scientific topics were identified: a) wireless networking, b) mobility, c) authentication, d) Quality of Service (QoS), and e) network support for services.

1. Introduction to Wireless Networks and Protocols.
2. Fundamentals of wireless communications.
3. Telecommunications systemss.
4. IEEE wireless data networks
5. Convergence and interoperability of wireless systems.
6. Authentication and access control.
7. Quality of Service aimed at providing abstractions, case studies, and research issues related to QoS topic.
8. Support for services and applications